Das Mädchen Mit Dem Weinglas

the English translation of "Een nieuwe theorie end twee schilderijen van johannes Vermeer (1632‐1675)," published in Jaarboek Delfia Batavorum 28 (2018), 9–‐34.

Du schaust: Das mädchen mit dem weinglas

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A search in the archives of Delft has revealed a place where johannes Vermeer might be located two von his paintings, today known as The Glass of Wine und The dame with 2 Gentlemen. A dritter painting, now known as Girl Interrupted in her Music, may deshalb relate to this location. This location was notfall Vermeer's atelier, but a mansion outside Delft: the home of a well-off gunpowder family members who, follow to the theory exposed here, commissioned these paintings, more than likely as wedding gifts for the heirs of the family members business. This neu theory has led also to neu interpretations des other features an these paintings.

Johannes Vermeer (1632–1675) von Delft has actually been die subject von a flood of books and articles since his rediscovery together a superb painter an the so late nineteenth century. In more recent years there has been much speculation about his feasible use von a camera obscura in the process of composing his paintings.1 A few years ago, my colleague Marlise Rijks and I to be able zu prove that such a device was present in Delft at the time des Vermeer. Ns military technician Johan van ns Wyck made—and publicly demonstrated—such bei optical maker during his stay in Delft indigenous 1654 zu 1658.2 Van ns Wyck's task as optical instrument maker in Delft coincides exactly v the start of die career of Vermeer, who became a member of the St. Lukas guild in 1653. In 2001, Philip Steadman committed a distinct study kommen sie Vermeer's an alleged use of such in optical device. According to him Vermeer's paints were all designed and made bei his atelier in the centre des Delft. However, zum at the very least two von Vermeer's canvases, with estimated dates betwee the year 1659–1662, we existing here a different possibility.

The zuerst painting is called von its existing owner, die Gemäldegalerie of the zustand Museen in Berlin, together Herr und Dame in Wein (Lady and Gentleman through Wine). However, in the English literature this painting is better well-known as The Glass of Wine. Ns other Vermeer paint from the Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum an Brunswick ist called Das mädchen mit dem Weinglas (The girl with a alcohol Glass), also known together The dame with 2 Gentlemen (see figures 1a and 1b).3

fig. 1a The Glass von Wine / ns Glas WeinOil ~ above canvas, 65 x 77 cm.c. 1658– 1661Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Gemälde-galerie, Berlin, inv. 912c
fig. 1b The lady with two Gentlemen / das Mädchen mit dem WeinglasOil on canvas, 78 x 67 cm.c. 1659– 1661Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Brunswijk, inv. GG 316

These two paintings are nearly identical in size (only the length und width room interchanged). Lock depict comparable scenes—a courtship—on a floor with the same ceramic tiles. This tiles, glazed an greenish-black und pale-brown, space different in size und colour than bei all other Vermeer paintings.4 A exceptional feature an both paintings is the offen window with an identical und elegantly crafted stained glass pattern, representing a coat of arms. This escutcheon is a so-called alliance-crest, portraying a combination des heraldic emblems belonging to die Dutch families van Nederveen and De Vogel. Due to the fact that Elisabeth Neurdenburg's publication von 1942 it is known that this combination refers to Moijses Jansz ventil Nederveen (1566–1624) und his wife Janetge Jacobsdr außerdem Vogel († 1604), a couple married an 1589.5 die tombstone des the couple was present an the Delft alt Church until the 1920s, wie man it disappeared throughout a facelift des this building. This tombstone showed just one bird in the dach Vogel crest, whereas bei Vermeer's two paints three birds are shown. However, this does notfall affect ns attribution. Die Rotterdam family de Vogel provided three birds in their coat of arms.6 in the two Vermeer paintings the crest ist oval, whose configuration zu sein the feature des a woman; therefore ns coat des arms has due to the fact that been referred as being Janetge dach Vogel's escutcheon.

This coat of arms has faced several nett historians through a problem. Why need to Vermeer have inserted bei these paintings a feature of a frau who died thirty years before he even was born? Neurdenburg guessed that ns depicted home window had to be present bei Vermeer's studio, being a presumed former house von the ventil Nederveen-De vogel couple. In 1989, john Michael Montias convincingly proved that this pair never own Vermeer's house, but had lived on the Oude Delft, the most highlights canal des the city. Later, in 1998, Montias argued that Nederveen's home at die Oude Delft might oase been bought von Vermeer's Maecenas Pieter Claesz van Ruijven (1624–1674). Montias had found that Ruijven had lived at the Oude Delft, bei a house referred to as De Gouden Adelaar ( "The gelb Eagle"). Maybe Vermeer had adapted his paints with die coat von arms zu flatter van Ruijven.7 However, this suggestion tun können be garbage too, due to the fact that Delft's digital Historic Geographic info System (HGIS) reveals that van Ruijven never ever lived an the Nederveen house. This house, called Het Gulde Laken ("The golden cloth"), was located at die south-west corner von the Oude Delft and the Pepersteeg.8 die Van Nederveen-De vogel couple live there already in 1600, und their house stayed an the family hinweisen least until 1653. Hinweisen some momente before 1657 the house was transported to die two widowed sisters Sara and Cornelia Croeser(s), that lived here hinweisen least till 1668. So, bei the years des production von the 2 Vermeer paintings, ventil Ruijven was never connected kommen sie this location. In 2008, ns late Vermeer specialist Walter Liedtke, lacking any kind of further explanation, presented together his opinion that die coat von arms an Vermeer's paintings had only a symbolic meaning, referring to ns general concept von "the respectable family."9Liedtke's view, however, disregards die vital meaning von heraldry in Dutch civil culture. If bei identifiable escutcheon is used in a seventeenth century dutch context, this definitely has a unique connotation.10 the fact that in both paintings ns window zu sein opened, zu present a far better view on the coat des arms, substantiates the value that have to be ascribed zu it. Whether or notfall such a window ever existed in reality, in the paint its message zu sein clear und not zu be misunderstood: these features oase something zu do with the Nederveen-De vogel couple! Therefore, v Nils Büttner, we ask: "this reality calls for bei explanation."11 bei line v Liedtke, Büttner seeks ns solution in a general token des family tradition, or in in ambiguous sexual meaning von the netherlands verb "vogelen." I, however, indicate a totally different meaning, adhering to a road already designated über Montias, who in 1989 said that:

Vermeer may schutz seen the coat von arms elsewhere, perhaps an the home on ns Oude Delft, where ventil Nederveen and his wife once dwelled, und inserted it into ns clear an are framed von the oval-shaped mullions. This would be particularly likely if one von Janetge Vogel's descendents had actually been Vermeer's patron.12

So ich wondered: who can this descendant have been? and why zu sein the exact same coat von arms supplied twice?

Historical facts: A family members history

None des the authors discussing Vermeer ad to die fact that Moijses Jansz ventil Nederveen founded a really important business bei Delft, which existed fine into the eighteenth century. Moijses was a cruytmacker, a producer of gunpowder, which product he ceded to die Dutch army, and also to die fleet.13 viewed from a army perspective, Delft was one des the most far-ranging places bei the netherlands Republic. In 1572, ns States-General, the supreme political organ of the young Republic had actually selected Delft together their central place kommen sie store their weaponry. A former Catholic chapel, sequestered by the federal government after the Reformation, was equipped together their military warehouse. This Generaliteits Magazijn was standing along ns Oude Delft, bei the middle of the city. That was deshalb the arbeit location von the aforementioned optician Van ns Wyck, in the four years that he was stationed in Delft together a armed forces engineer. The provincial government, the States des Holland, followed the example von the commonwealth government. For their military equipment a big arsenal was built at the ende of die same canal an 1602. 14

Moijses ventil Nederveen was one of the 4 Delft producers of gunpowder. An 1593 he ended up being a poorter (citizen) von Delft, stating that he came from die Frisian city of Franeker.15 an fact his origin was Brielle, a city 25 km south von Delft, wherein his father jan van Nederveen already worked as a producer des gunpowder.16 So, it seems that Moijses was educated at the Franeker University, founded bei 1585. It is well well-known that bei the beforehand years of that universität alchemy (and therefore deshalb regular chemistry) enjoyed good interest there.17

Moijses ongoing his father's business in Delft. An 1603 the stadt government granted Moijses permission zu erect a kruitmolen (gunpowder mill) outside die walls, along die Buitenwatersloot, a canal that linked Delft to Maassluis.18 bei this flour mill saltpeter (or potassium nitrate) was mixed v sulphur and charcoal kommen sie obtain die desired gunpowder. Today here blieb remains a bridge, called the Mosjesbrug, referring to Moijses van Nederveen together its original builder (Fig. 2).19

fig. 2 Nineteenth-century view on Delft und the Buitenwatersloot. Ns bridge in the middle zu sein the Mosjesbrug, called after Moijses ventil Nederveen. This leg once detailed access zu Nederveen's dynamite factory. On die site of the alt mansion, a gatehouse of the danach kogelgieterij (bullet foundry) was built in the nineteenth century. Stole engraving von F. Hablitschek after ~ a drawing of J.W. Cooke. (City save on computer Delft, TMS 68033)

Together with his business companion Willem Willemsz van Linschoten, Nederveen delivered huge amounts von gunpowder to the States General und the Province of Holland, punkt least from 1598 onwards.20 It is estimated that in the zuerst decade von the ten century Nederveen und Linschoten to be responsible zum the delivery von approximately 60% des all ns gunpowder used bei the netherlands Republic.21 It ist obvious the their business must oase been very profitable, even after they competent a significant setback in 1604, wie man their kruitmolen exploded.22

After Moijses van Nederveen's death bei November 1624, die lucrative flour factory was continued von his child Johannes, in addition to Moijses's son-in-law, Abraham Salomonsz van der Heul.23 these two business partners were dual brothers in law: john van Nederveen married Abraham's sister Jacobmijntge van ns Heul und Abraham van das Heul married Johannes's sister Katrina van Nederveen. Die Nederveen-Van das Heul pair took over ns house 't Gulde Laken at die Oude Delft (Fig. 3) und the Van das Heul-Van Nederveen couple settled in a house at die Delft Koornmarkt. An approximately 1648, ns family deshalb had access to a (probably recently built) mansion an front des the gunpowder factory (Fig. 4).24

fig. 3 Moijses van Nederveen's house at ns (right) corner von the Oude Delft and the Pepersteeg. This residence remained an the family punkt least till 1653. Detail of the Kaart Figuratief native 1677.
fig. 4, detail of fig. 5 ns Nederveen-Van der Heul family members mansion at ns kruitmolen bei front des the Mosjesbrug, constructed c. 1648.

Unfortunately, both johannes van Nederveen und his wife Jacobmijntge van Nederveen died shortly after every other in the early on 1650s. From their five children, only one under-aged daughter survived. Given die close family members relationships, it ist needless to say that this orphan now came under the custody of her double uncle and aunt, Abraham Salomonsz van der Heul und Katrina ventil Nederveen. This couple had already four children des their own. Essential zum the family members was ns gunpowder factory, founded von Moijses ventil Nederveen during his marriage zu Janetge de Vogel. In the year 1658–1663 (the estimated time von creation des the Vermeer paintings), this gunpowder factory (Fig. 5) was die only place in Delft whereby it make sense kommen sie commemorate your memory und where one could expect a home window with die before stated coat of arms.

fig. 5 Map von the gunpowder manufacturing facility at die Buitenwatersloot, made in 1718 by the surveyor Leendert Swemkoop. Die mansion (fig. 4) was situated slightly to ns left above ns compass rose, near ns Mosjesbrug. (City archive Delft, 1.1, inv. Nr. 544; TMS 123012)

A zuerst hypothesis: family members weddings in the years 1658–1660

The genealogy des the van Nederveen-Van das Heul family members (see die appendix) reveals the on 12 December 1658 ns eldest son und intended successor des the dynamite factory, Salomon van ns Heul (22 years von age) married Rusge 's Gravesande (23 years of age). This date fits remarkably fine to the estimated date des production des Vermeer's Glass des Wine: 1658–1661. So, could it be that this painting was meant as in engagement or wedding gift?

A following wedding in the Nederveen-Van das Heul family occurred on 10 november 1660: this time that concerned ns orphan from ns other branch von the family: barbara van Nederveen (then 26 years of age). She married john van das Slaert, a 34-years old widower und Calvinist minister at Katwijk on die Rhine.25 barbara represented ns other branch von the heirs to ns gunpowder factory. She too was a grandchild von Moijses ventil Nederveen and Janetge de Vogel. So, zu present herstellung with a similar painting as her cousin Salomon would certainly be a beau geste that would certainly underscore bei a beautiful way ns origin of in otherwise currently intertwined family. Moreover, such a gesture would be in line through a zoll of remembrance an the Nederveen family. Zum instance, an this family members it was deshalb remembered with good pride the they lower from a noble baby, who—like Moses an the alt Testament—was rescued in a wicker basket during die Great Elisabeth Flood des 1421. An 1635 Barbara's father, ns late Johan Moijses van Nederveen, had interviewed an old greataunt around what she, bei her youth, had heard around this event, i m sorry statement he had recorded bei a notary document.26

In short, at zuerst sight it seems plausible that The lady with 2 Gentlemen, the second painting with die family crest, was made zum Barbara's marriage. This canvas has indeed a somewhat letztere estimated date des production than ns first. However if these two comparable Vermeer paintings were wedding gifts, climate they must oase been commissioned über the rich gunpowder producer Abraham Salomonsz van der Heul and his mam Katrina ventil Nederveen. ~ all, lock were ns guardians of the kids from every branch of the family. Ns mere reality that in due time ns gunpowder manufacturing facility would be handed over zu these 2 branches defines both the presence von the ventil Nederveen-De vogel coat von arms bei the Vermeer paintings, as well as their double usage.

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Further arguments: A female virtue in the window

But there are much more arguments for our hypothesis 보다 just bei appropriate genealogy. Bei the window, the holder von Janetge de Vogel's coat of arms ist a female number (figs. 6a und 6b). Rudiger Klessmann determined her an 1978 as a representation von Temperantia, die virtue des moderation and selfcontrol.27 Klessmann made this identification über comparing the female figure with in emblem in Gabriel Rollenhagen's Selectorum Emblematum of 1613 (Fig. 7), arguing that the female number has reins in her hands, which would certainly express to the viewer ns necessity zu bridle oneself. Ns interpretation regarding die reins has actually been dismissed von Gregor Weber. He identified ns curved wires an the woman's hand as ribbons, used as in ornament to decorate die coat des arms.28 However, as linda Freeman Bauer remarked "a nearby scrutiny of the home window does not yield the certainty of identity Temperantia> that one would wish."29 Indeed, already an 1907 Cornelis Hofstede außerdem Groot has listed that ns female virtue has actually neither reins no one ribbons, however rather snakes in her hand.30 When i investigated i beg your pardon virtue can be linked with snakes, Prudentia rotate up, especially in engraving von Jacob Matham ~ a drawing of Hendrick Goltzius, i m sorry depiction closely resembles ns female figure an Vermeer's painted home window (Fig. 8).31

As a dominion Prudentia has actually two encounters (as an Goltzius's drawing), but bei the Vermeer paintings ns head of the virtue ist too coarsely painted to distinguish this detail. In the provided context, this new identification would make sense. In a gunpowder manufacturing facility Prudentia—or prudence—is really an essential virtue! it makes freundin wonder even if it is Janetge de Vogel's death bei 1604 perhaps was inflicted von the explosion of Nederveen's gunpowder manufacturing facility that really year! bei that case ns window would represent a warning to die next generation zu act really cautiously with die family business.

fig. 6a & 6b The open window in The Glass of Wine (left) and in The lady with two Gentlemen (right)
fig. 7 die virtue 'Temperantia' native Gabriel Rollenhagen's Selectorum Emblematum (1613)
">fig. 8 ns virtue 'Prudentia'. Sculpture von Jacob Matham after ~ Hendrick Goltzius (c. 1610)

Moreover, an the 1660s everyone in Delft was aware of the dangers von gunpowder. In 1654 a huge explosion involving one more gunpowder repository—an event called ns Delftse Donderslag (Delft Thunderclap)—had destroyed a huge part of the city.

In this paper definition it is remarkable that für hilfe a century later, bei the auction of the exceptional collection des prints und drawings von Abraham Salomonsz ii van ns Heul (grandson of the suspect commissioner des the Vermeer paints Abraham Salomonsz ich van der Heul), number of prints über Hendrick Goltzius to be offered for sale.32 could it be that part of this collection, which consisted of "several beautiful prints" by various masters "such together Sadeler, Titiaan, Michel Angelo, Raphael, Goltzius , and the like," was already carried together by Abraham senior?33 the presence des these prints weist least proves the within the Van Nederveen-Van das Heul household a social awareness existed, bei which such creative expressions were appreciated.

Questions and guesses (1)

The Glass von Wine and The dame with 2 Gentlemen might undisputedly be characterized as genre paintings. This was at the time a an extremely fashionable way of painting, bei which domestic scenes were shown in detail, regularly with moralistic und sometimes coded messages. Netherlands painters des the seventeenth century oase produced huge numbers des genre paintings, regularly drawing inspiration from every other's work.34

It is accepted among nett historians the Vermeer was strongly influenced über Pieter außerdem Hooch, who worked in Delft as a painter bolzen 1652 and 1660. Follow to jan Kelch (1984) außerdem Hooch "was one des the zuerst Dutch genre painters to oase created a 'natural environment' for his figures."35 Vermeer entered die Delft St Luke's guild in 1653, virtually simultaneously with de Hooch. He wollen therefore oase known juni Hooch and his work rather well. Kelch therefore says that Vermeer's Glass of Wine und The dame with 2 Gentlemen "cannot it is in placed earlier than the erste masterpieces by Pieter außerdem Hooch."36 Liedtke confirms this, writing an 2001:

De Hooch and Vermeer must oase inspired every other in the late 1650s. <…>. It shows up that juni Hooch was Vermeer's main point von departure zum the types des subject und composition found in The Glass des Wine and one or two various other works.37

Even ns theme von courtship entailing a glass des wine Vermeer seems to oase derived from außerdem Hooch. However, at die time this concept has also been provided frequently von other painters, such as Gabriël Metsu (1629–1667), Quiringh ventil Brekelenkam (c. 1622–c. 1669), Gerard ter Borch the Younger (1617–1680), Frans van Mieris die Elder (1635–1681) und possibly deshalb Ludolf de Jongh (1616–1679).38 yet because the majority des their paintings zu sein not dated, it zu sein difficult to determine who precisely inspired who.

If it indeed was a habit zu include an genre paintings covert messages, can these references notfall be personalized? weil das example, by adding ja wirklich elements, together as an our case the coat des arms von the family ventil Nederveen? after all, dach Hooch so has incorporated twice in a genre painting the blieb existing memorial stone von the Delft Hieronymuspoort.39 außerdem Hooch live on the site behind that gate from 1655 kommen sie 1660. Over there he deshalb located a gruppe portrait von the Delft reverend Volckerus abdominal Oosterwijck (1603–1675) und some relatives, stand at the courtyard des their home (the domineeshuis) an the former St Hieronymus convent. This canvas (now an the Gemäldegalerie der Bildende Künste bei Vienna) has the year 1658 as approximated date von production.40 an this approach von the introduction von lifelike elements an a genre painting juni Hooch was followed von others. Jan Steen, zum instance, who resided in Delft in the year 1654–1657, included ns Delft vendor Adolf Croeser and his daughter deshalb in a genre painting.41

So, with his coat von arms Vermeer followed die footsteps of his colleagues. Jetzt the inquiry arises: did he incorporate more echt elements in the canvases the are debated here? for instance, the Brunswick Vermeer depicts as a "painting-within-a-painting," a portrait with a pleated collar und cuffs v lace, an the style von the Delft painter Michiel van Mierevelt (1566–1641) (see Fig. 9).42 bei such a painting in a painting usually the hauptsächlich theme des the setting was emphasized, or in opposite pole was represented. This practice makes interpretations difficult. Nevertheless, such in attempt occasionally yields how amazing insights. According to Liedtke the sitter in The lady with two Gentlemen ist a "sober figure, hovers in the room like a parent, a chaperone, or a conscience."43 A comparison v other ventil Mierevelt paints reveals that ns clothing of this person can be dated roughly 1625 (Fig. 10).44

fig. 9 Vermeer's painting-within-a-painting portrait in The dame with two Gentlemen (left). The sitter's garments resembles those in Van Mierevelt's portrait des Ewout van der Dussen.fig. 10 Portrait des Ewout van der Dussen (1574–1653), von the Delft painter Michiel van Mierevelt, date 1626 (right), lock Sypesteyn, Loosdrecht

When we recall that die founder des the gun powder factory, Moijses van Nederveen, died an 1624, then die question arises whether this painting-within--painting might be his portrait. Barbara van Nederveen was ns only Überleben member des the family blieb carrying his surname. How could this be much better emphasized than von Moijses' presence in this canvas, The dame with two Gentlemen?

Unfortunately, the painting-within-a-painting in the luxurious gilded framework on the zurück wall of The Glass des Wine cannot conveniently be interpreted. To begin with, it is hard to lakers what ist depicted in that frame. During a visit zu Berlin bei 2014, ich found it impossible kommen sie distinguish any type of details. The painting-within-a-painting ist chiefly very dark. But bei 1911, Eduard Plietzsch plainly recognized here a wooded landscape, according zu him in the style of Allart van Everdingen. And indeed, top top photographs one kann sein clearly distinguish in Arcadian landscape, possibly also with a simple hut.45 Vermeer provided a similar landscape in the background des The Concert (stolen und still absent from ns Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum at Boston bei 1990). Elise Goodman suspects the Vermeer intentionally made the landscape bei The Glass des Wine dafür dark. She points out that all orthogonals in this canvas converge to this dark landscape. According zu Goodman Vermeer has actually consciously emphasized an this composition die contrast betwee the darkness des the forest and the lightness von love. An her arguments in support von this idea she referred to some old Dutch songbooks, i m sorry would deshalb would underline that woman are a masterpiece von nature.46

In this way, over there are much more elements zu denote. Weil das instance ns question what to think about the characters depicted in the canvases? can they it is in representations des the connected couples? des course, these Vermeer paintings may not be compared with the formal portraits made earlier in the century, but, as we schutz pointed out, around the middle des the ten century personalized genre paintings were without doubt made. In both Vermeer paintings, zum example, only one person is depicted in front view—and thus possibly through recognizable features. An The Glass von Wine this person zu sein a einer and in The lady with 2 Gentlemen it concerns a female character. Can it be that bei these paints on the one hand the groom Salomon van ns Heul zu sein represented, and on the other hand the bride barbara van Nederveen? (cf. Figs. 11a & 11b). Die facial features of the various other subjects (possibly representing die bride Rusge 's Gravesande, respectively ns groom johannes van ns Slaert) are not shown bei a recognizable way.

fig. 11a & 11b space these sitters representations des Salomon van ns Heul (22 years in 1658) und his first cousin barbara van Nederveen (26 years an 1660)?

More difficult to interpret is the mysterious third person in The lady with 2 Gentlemen: a sideways sit man in the background, who—leaning on his ideal arm—does notfall really participate in what wake up elsewhere in the room (Fig. 12).

fig. 12 ns sleeping (?) man an the background of The lady with two Gentlemen

So far, he has actually been understood as a melancholic, in alcoholic, or a rubbish lover.47 die way in which he ist depicted is indeed notfall exactly cheerful. If this painting is a wedding present, as ich assume, why then incorporate a person with together a gloomy aura? In bei earlier stage of my investigation i thought that person could stand for Moses ii van Nederveen, Barbara's yonsei brother, acting together unwilling chaperone during his sister's courtship, deliberately spring aside. Would it notfall be a nice und teasing way von recalling this anecdote an a wedding gift? but then i learnt from die archives the Moses junior currently died an 1649, at the age des nineteen.48 Nevertheless, although it ist perfectly conceivable that this character refers zu a mitarbeiter anecdote, miscellaneous more kann sein be claimed about ns way von rendering. Ns attitude of the man is bei fact resembling that von the maid in Vermeer's A frau Asleep. At that time being asleep was synonymous through idleness or dereliction of your duties, one von the deadly sins. An The lady with 2 Gentlemen the man seems zu sleep. Bei any case, the does not pay attention and therefore neglects his duty. Even if it is this idleness should deshalb be given bei erotic connotation, together Eddy juni Jongh argued an the discussion von a comparable situation bei a painting von Nicolaas Maas, i leave aside.49

Questions und guesses (2)

If us pursue die line von thought that these two paintings need to be viewed as gifts weil das the engagement or wedding von two grandchildren von Moijses van Nederveen, then automatically there ist another question kommen sie tackle. Since on 30 may 1660, just a couple of months before barbara van Nederveen's wedding, produziert cousin anna van das Heul (then 29 years von age) deshalb married. Die groom was Reijer van ns Berch, a 40 year alt widower indigenous Brielle. Anna was the older sister von Salomon, und therefore she was also a grandchild of Moijses ventil Nederveen. Would it not be consequent the she, too, should schutz received a similar painting? zu sein here a Vermeer canvas missing? Or, otherwise, could it be the the much smaller und unsigned Vermeer painting an the new York Frick Collection, jetzt known as Girl Interrupted in her Music (Fig. 13) und estimated zu be made in 1658–1662, was intended for anna van ns Heul and her groom indigenous Brielle?50

fig. 13 Girl Interrupted in her Musicc. 1658–1662Oil top top canvas: 39.4 x 44.5 cm.Frick Collection, new York die picture-within-a-picture at the wall ist Van Everdingen's Cupid. Compare fig. 14.

That canvas ist estimated to schutz been made an the years 1658–1662, a day that again would fit to die date of this marriage. Ns depicted setup surely each other The lady with 2 Gentlemen, although ns window ist closed and the central coat von arms ist lacking. Complying with Blankert, one might wonder if this much smaller und less powerfully painted (or brushed) canvas ist just a preliminary study for a jetzt disappeared larger original.51 in that case, ns coat von arms could ausblüten be applied after a later elaboration. Anyway, die intricate pattern von the stained glass window in this painting ist completely identical kommen sie that bei the two various other Vermeer paintings.52 the chairs an the Girl Interrupted in her Music are so the very same as an The Glass des Wine and the string werkzeug (a zither) shown an both paintings zu sein comparable. This suggests that this painting might be located in the same residence as die other two. Further, ns theme of making music through a string instrument fits in well with ns depicted courtship. Ns Dutch poet jacob Westerbaen wrote zum instance in 1672: "Learn kommen sie play on the lute, learn to play on die harpsichord | ns strings oase the power to stealing someone's heart."53

In die background von this canvas, according kommen sie the erste known summary from 1810, a violin hung on the wall, but an later restorations a naked Cupid arised here as a "painting-in-a-painting." This depiction, ~ a jetzt lost canvas über Caesar van Everdingen (c.1616–1678), Vermeer has used an ext often, zum example bei his A dame Standing punkt a Virginal (fig. 14).

fig. 14 ventil Everdingen's Cupido, with the arm raised, holdinga card, together depicted bei Vermeer's Lady standing at a Virginal national Gallery, London. C. 1670–1674

Eddy juni Jongh has bezeichnen that this Cupid zu sein based on in engraving in Otto ventil Veen's Amorum Emblemata (Antwerp 1608), which refers zu faithful love for a einzel partner, again a template that fits nicely with die idea that this painting was intended kommen sie be a wedding present.54 If so, then in line v the situation at The Glass des Wine and The dame with two Gentlemen, ns "warm side" von the couple is depicted in a recognizable way. So here, too, the question appears legitimate even if it is it is the bride anna van ns Heul who aussehen at the viewer, while her future husband directs his gaze downwards?

Anyway, ns assumed commissioner von the Vermeer paintings, Abraham Salomonsz van der Heul, died bei 1666. Two years danach his wife, Katrina van Nederveen, passed away too. This truth may describe why die remaining children von the family, punkt their later weddings, evidently did notfall receive similar paintings (see die appendix).

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The provenances

If Abraham van der Heul and Katrina ventil Nederveen indeed commissioned these paints to mark the aforementioned marriages, what then ist a plausible road zu the zuerst registered sightings von these paintings?55

The berlin Vermeer is erste mentioned bei July 1736 as part des the bankrupt estate von the Delft brewer und collector jan van Loon (1693–1761), that had come into major financial difficulties the year before. As a result, he was forced zu sell every his possessions. It was a giant bankruptcy the must schutz been disputed throughout Delft. Notfall only ventil Loon's renowned brewery De verkeerde wereld ("The not correct world") was auctioned in June 1736, but deshalb his nearby beautiful mansion at the Gasthuislaan, and four other residences and in 1734 newly built farm an the village des Zevenhuizen. A few days danach his household impacts were sold, including some "curious Japanese en Chinese porcelain," jewellery, 'beautiful modern table- und silverware', but so all that belongs to in orderly and regulated household." van Loons collection von 49 paints (with pieces über Gerard Dou, Pieter juni Hooch, Gabriël Metsu, paul Potter, Herman Saftleven, jan Steen and others) was therefore just a klein part des what had to be sold. Bei unknown the person who lives bought Vermeer's The Glass von Wine—described in the auction catalogue together "a sitting drinking female v a stand male figure" weil das 52 guilders.56 notfall that much, since 21 other paintings compelled a higher bid. The highest amount—340 guilders—had zu be paid for a canvas von the Italian artist Michelangelo Cerquozzi, representing ns Capitol in Rome. To make matters worse, ventil Loon's wife, katharina Hoogh(t)wout native Alkmaar, passed away 14 June 1736, bei the middle des the series of execution auctions, which says a suicide. Ventil Loon, that afterward, moved to Utrecht, would be chased von his debts until his death. The died in Utrecht in May 1761, at the home des a canon von the archiepiscopal church, v whom the lived and who took care for the settlement of Van Loon's meagre legacy.57

The Brunswick painting über "Von ns Mair" is zuerst recorded an a description of the Kunstkammer des Duke Anton Ulrich über Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, published about 1710. Climate this canvas zu sein called Eine lustige Gesellschaft, an English "a funny company."58 an 1975, Blankert discovered that bei the 1696 auction of the Delft printer and bookbinder jacob Abrahamsz Dissius (1653–1695), a Vermeer painting was offered, described in exactly die same wording: "Een vrolijk gezelschap in een kamer, kragtig en goet" (a merry company in a room, vigorous und good).59 This solid resemblance suggests that battle each other Anton Ulrich commissioned ns purchase des The dame with 2 Gentlemen at die 1696 Dissius auction, wherein no much less than 21 Vermeer paintings were sold. In these years ns Brunswick duke was very active in the gathering des paintings. His "Schloss Salzdahlum" (finished an 1694) was built especially kommen sie house his collections, but a huge part des it still had zu be acquired. An his study of the duke's collection, Koenraad Jonckheere wrote in 2004:

Enormous empty wall surfaces had zu be decorated. A large part des the paintings von Anton Ulrich—more than 140 masterpieces—was of Dutch origin, that ist to say nearly a quarter des the entire collection. Many paintings must have been bought in the Netherlands und shipped from there kommen sie Salzdahlum.60

It was Elisabeth Neurdenburg who an 1942 made the connection betwee the Dissius auction des 1696 and bei inventory an the Delft save listing 20 Vermeer paintings, dated 1683.61 This list concerned die estate des the late Magdalena ventil Ruijven, jacob Dissius's wife. Montias convincingly verified that produziert husband's repertoire was in fact hers, or fairly that die collection von paintings was brought together von her so late father, Pieter Claesz ventil Ruijven (1624–1674).62 an 1987 Montias proved that he had been Vermeer's ja wirklich Maecenas. It was ventil Ruijven who had actually bought the bulk von Vermeer's paints since ns mid-1650s. However, as Montias noted, ns Dissius auction des 1696 counted 21 Vermeer paintings, whereas ns inventory des 1683 detailed 20. So, between 1683 und 1696 one Vermeer painting must have been included to ns Van Ruijven collection. It zu sein my hypothesis that this painting was The lady with 2 Gentlemen, as ich will controversy below.

An education guess about ns journey with time of the Brunswick canvas

If The dame with two Gentlemen indeed was a wedding gift to barbara van Nederveen in 1660, how did it arrive at the Dissius auction an 1696? just how may this canvas oase left the hands of Barbara's family? Unfortunately, an extremely little is known around Barbara's life. In 1652 und 1654, shortly after die death des each of her parents, she do a tonnage will. The zuerst time to appoint her father as heir, und the second time, wie man she was the tonnage surviving child von the ventil Nederveen branch, she favoured her zuerst cousins, through whom she jetzt lived together in the same house on die Buitenwatersloot, adding in her testimony two other relatives, the children of herstellung aunt in Brielle.63 Further, in June 1660, shortly before herstellung marriage, she sold teil of her father's inheritance (the festland on which die kruitmolen stood) to herstellung uncle und cousin, Abraham van das Heul and his kid Salomon.64 After herstellung marriage to reverend johannes van ns Slaert, she left Delft zu become a minister's wife bei the village of Katwijk. Over there she stood witness hinweisen two baptisms in nearby Leiden.65 in 1671 produziert husband adjusted his post for the remote southerly town of Hulst an the province of Zeeland. Here barbara died an 1679, leaving behind one daughter, Catherina, then nur eighteen years old.66

If my theory about ns Vermeer painting zu sein correct, Catherina van ns Slaert inherited die canvas, probably after herstellung mother's death, yet most definitely after ns passing far of herstellung father bei 1692. Hinweisen that time katharina van der Slaert already was a widow, responsible zum the upbringing of two young sons. In 1687, at ns age des 26, Catherina had married david Bake, a local notary, who passed away two year later, wie she was pregnant with her second child. It would certainly take ripe years before she remarried.67 A kid from this 2nd marriage recalls the his mother in these an overwhelming years had been obliged zu find "honorable means of finding bread weil das her children."68 This argues that Catherina was rather short des cash bolzen 1689 and 1696. Die sale von a paint may absolutely be related to as bei honourable way zu obtain money. Moreover, this period fits unique with the time span between 1683 and 1696 in which jacob Dissius from Delft acquired a neu Vermeer. A transition of The dame with two Gentlemen from Hulst back to Delft can easily it is in performed. From the poems des Catharina's son we find out that over die years katharina stayed bei close call with produziert Delft relatives.69

An educated guess about ns journey v time of the berlin Vermeer

Salomon van der Heul, the presumed erste owner of the berlin Vermeer, prospered his father and uncle as a dynamite producer. The extended the family firm, with die result that around 1670 Salomon obtained the exclusive right zu store all gunpowder for the Province von Holland, ns Rotterdam admiralty ("op de Maze") und the Delft chamber des the east India Company.70 Salomon retained these lucrative contracts all his life, i beg your pardon made er a an extremely rich man. His wife, Rusge 's Gravesande, pass away bei 1692. Herstellung funeral was an exposé von the family's grandeur. She was buried at night (the most expensive hour) through sixteen carriers of torches, gift followed über many luxury coaches.71 Salomon remained in good form until old age.72 It ist telling that he notified a in brand geraten new coach shortly before his death an 1722.73 until his last days Salomon lived in the mansion near die gunpowder factory, although native 1698 onwards he also possessed two impressive homes inside Delft.74

In 1722 Salomon's items were divided among his four Überleben children and one grandchild.75 Unfortunately, no paper relating to Salomon's legacy has passed down kommen sie us. It zu sein only recognized that bei 1723, when Salomon's daughter katharina sold the gunpowder factory,76 she removed from the family mansion "two paints above the chimney, being family members pieces."77 One of these canvases was probably a painting of Salomon's children über Johannes Verkolje, mentioned über Arnold Houbraken.78 the other one could oase been ns Vermeer painting, yet unfortunately, details are lacking. It is true that Houbraken mentions a 2nd painting punkt Van der Heul's gunpowder factory—an alchemist von the Delft painter Adriaan ventil Linschoten—but this canvas was no family piece weil das it was bought an 1645 at die auction von the assets von Harman Pietersz ventil Ruijven (c. 1587–1645), a trader in wood.79 Anyway, in the years bolzen Salomon's death an 1722 und the erste sighting of the Vermeer painting at ns Van Loon sale an 1736, all Salomon's youngsters had passed away, to my knowledge without leaving any kind of inventories von their estates.80 However, in interesting clue is given bei the last will von Salomon's unmarried kid Adriaen (†1730), who an 1728 bequeathed his collection of gelb coins and medals zu his sister anna (who would ns later the year).81 This specific numismatic interest indicates that Adriaen van das Heul punkt least must oase been familiar with die Delft numismatist und brewer Gerard van Loon (1683–1758), die elder brother von the Delft brewer januar van Loon: ns very man who gained Vermeer's The Glass des Wine somewhere before 1736! Gerard ventil Loon zu sein best known weil das his richly portrayed multi-volume folio book Beschrijving das Nederlandsche Historiepenningen, die standard referral work weil das Dutch medals till today. Ventil Loon visited essentially every coin- and medal collector in the whole Dutch Republic, deshalb certainly so his other citizen Adriaen van ns Heul, who without doubt figures bei the list von subscribers des Van Loon's numismatic Opus Magnum.82 Gerard van Loon is deshalb known together one von the executors of the estate von his renowned fellow citizen anthony van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723), who in turn had actually been die executor of johannes Vermeers's estate.83 Indeed ns Delft social circles were narrow! ns intertwinement von the Delft social circles goes also further: anthony van Leeuwenhoek's preacher, die Delft reverend Petrus Gribius, that informed ns Royal Society an London around Leeuwenhoek's death und who functioned closely in addition to Gerard ventil Loon in preparing Leeuwenhoek's funeral, was ns widower des Diewertge (Debora) van der Heul (1659–1702), the eldest daughter des Salomon van das Heul and Rusge 's Gravesande. Their daugher maria Gribius was one des the taste heirs des the Van das Heul fortune.84 So, it zu sein not the difficult to imagine how ns brewer jan van Loon could schutz come in contact with the Van ns Heul family.

Anyway, punkt some moment in time jan van Loon succeeded zu buy The Glass of Wine. Yet only at die expense of an added preis that could not be expressed an money. As condition zum the transfer to ventil Loon, die Van ns Heul heirs must schutz stipulated that die Vermeer painting was made anonymous von hiding ns recognizable coat of arms under a new layer des paint. Weil das it ist telling that bei 1901, wie man the berlin Museum purchased The Glass des Wine, die window with the coat des arms was painted out von a curtain and a see through in open home window without glass (Fig. 15).85 after all, without ns escutcheon ns Vermeer canvas was nur another dutch genre painting: "a sitting drinking female through a standing male figure," as described bei the ventil Loon auction of 1736.86